Turbine Aerodynamics: Axial-Flow and Radial-Inflow Turbine Design and Analysis

Table Of Contents

 

Preface

 

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Basic Turbine Configurations

  • 1.2 Radial-Inflow and Axial-Flow Turbine Features

  • 1.3 Velocity Diagrams for a Stage

  • 1.4 Similitude and Performance Characteristics

  • 1.5 Units and Conventions

 

2.0 Thermodynamics

  • 2.1 First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics

  • 2.2 Efficiency

  • 2.3 Fluid Equation-of-State Fundamentals

  • 2.4 The Caloric Equation of State

  • 2.5 Entropy and the Speed of Sound

  • 2.6 The Thermal Equation of State for Real Gases

  • 2.7 Thermodynamic Properties of Real Gases

  • 2.8 Thermally and Calorically Perfect Gases

  • 2.9 The Pseudo-Perfect Gas Model

  • 2.10 Liquid-Phase Properties

  • 2.11 Gas Viscosity

  • 2.12 Component Performance Parameters

  • 2.13 A Computerized Equation of State Package

 

3.0 Fluid Mechanics

  • 3.1 Flow in a Rotating Coordinate System

  • 3.2 Adiabatic Inviscid Compressible Flow

  • 3.3 Adiabatic Inviscid Compressible Flow Applications

  • 3.4 Boundary Layer Analysis

  • 3.5 Two-Dimensional Boundary Layer Analysis

  • 3.6 Axisymmetric Three-Dimensional Boundary Layer Analysis

  • 3.7 Vector Operators in Natural Coordinates

 

4.0 Empirical Performance Models for Axial-Flow Turbine Blade Rows

  • 4.1 Blade Row Geometry

  • 4.2 Fluid Deviation Angle

  • 4.3 Overview of the Loss System

  • 4.4 Profile Loss Coefficient

  • 4.5 Secondary Flow Loss Coefficient

  • 4.6 Trailing-Edge Loss Coefficient

  • 4.7 Shock loss Coefficient

  • 4.8 Supersonic Expansion Loss Coefficient

  • 4.9 Blade Clearance Loss Coefficient

  • 4.10 Lashing Wire Loss Coefficient

  • 4.11 Leakage Bypass Loss

  • 4.12 Partial Admission Loss

  • 4.13 Disk Friction Loss

  • 4.14 Clearance Gap Windage Loss

  • 4.15 Moisture Loss

 

5.0 Aerodynamic Performance Analysis of Axial-Flow Turbines

  • 5.1 The Meridional Coordinate System

  • 5.2 The Approximate Normal Equilibrium Model

  • 5.3 Inviscid Adiabatic Flow on A Quasi-Normal

  • 5.4 Linking Quasi-Normals

  • 5.5 The Flow Profiles on a Quasi-Normal

  • 5.6 Turbine Performance Analysis

  • 5.7 Typical Performance Analysis Results

  • 5.8 Diaphragm-Disk Rotor Leakage Flows

  • 5.9 Blade Forces and Rotor Thrust

  • 5.10 Concluding Remarks

 

6.0 Preliminary Aerodynamic Design of Axial-Flow Turbine Stages

  • 6.1 Preliminary Aerodynamic Design Strategy

  • 6.2 Velocity Triangles at the Design Radius

  • 6.3 The Vortex Type and Swirl Velocity Distributions

  • 6.4 Stage Efficiency

  • 6.5 The Optimum Pitch-To-Chord Ratio

  • 6.6 Initializing the Total Thermodynamic Conditions

  • 6.7 The Stage Inlet Flow Profiles

  • 6.8 Sizing the Annulus

  • 6.9 Selecting the Blade Row Geometry

  • 6.10 A Computerized Preliminary Design System

  • 6.11 Selection of the Dimensionless Performance Parameters

  • 6.12 Selection of the Swirl Velocity Vortex Type

  • 6.13 Concluding Remarks

 

7.0 Detailed Airfoil Design for Axial-Flow Turbines

  • 7.1 Definition of the Airfoil Geometry

  • 7.2 The Airfoil Profile Model

  • 7.3 Determining the Polynomial Coefficients

  • 7.4 Leading and Trailing Edge Profiles

  • 7.5 The Passage Throat Calculation

  • 7.6 Adjusting the Uncovered Turning

  • 7.7 Design of a Complete Blade

  • 7.8 The Optional Defining Points

  • 7.9 Evaluation of the Airfoil Design

  • 7.10 A Computerized Airfoil Design System

 

8.0 Industrial Axial-Flow Turbine Application Procedures

  • 8.1 Stage Performance Rating Curves

  • 8.2 Reynolds Number Effects

  • 8.3 Reaction Rating Curves

  • 8.4 Application Procedures Based On Rating Curves

 

9.0 Aerodynamic Performance Analysis of Radial-Inflow Turbines

  • 9.1 Radial-Inflow Turbine Stage Geometry

  • 9.2 Boundary Layer Analysis

  • 9.3 The Boundary Layer Loss Coefficient

  • 9.4 Inlet Volute Analysis

  • 9.5 Nozzle Row Analysis

  • 9.6 Rotor Analysis

  • 9.7 Vaneless Annular Passage Analysis

  • 9.8 Exhaust Diffuser Analysis

  • 9.9 Imposed Total Pressure Loss

  • 9.10 Inlet Station Analysis

  • 9.11 The Performance Analysis Strategy

  • 9.12 Mass Balance Procedures

  • 9.13 Sub-Critical Performance Analysis

  • 9.14 Super-Critical Performance Analysis

  • 9.15 Typical Performance Analysis Results

 

10.0 Preliminary Aerodynamic Design of Radial-Inflow Turbine Stages

  • 10.1 Preliminary Aerodynamic Design Strategy

  • 10.2 Rotor Tip Sizing

  • 10.3 Rotor Design Specifications

  • 10.4 Rotor Sizing

  • 10.5 Evaluating the Rotor Design

  • 10.6 Rotor End-Wall Contours

  • 10.7 Straight-line Element Rotor Blade Camberlines

  • 10.8 Radial Element Rotor Blade Camberlines

  • 10.9 Nozzle Blade Geometry

  • 10.10 Nozzle Row Sizing

  • 10.11 Evaluating the Nozzle Design

  • 10.12 Initial Estimates of the Nozzle Design Specifications

  • 10.13 Volute Preliminary Design

  • 10.14 Exhaust Diffuser Sizing

  • 10.15 A Typical Preliminary Design Example

  • 10.16 A Computerized Preliminary Design System

 

11.0 Detailed Aerodynamic Design of Radial-Inflow Turbine Components

  • 11.1 Nozzle Blade Detailed Design

  • 11.2 A General Approach to Gaspath Detailed Design

  • 11.3 Useful Curve Forms

  • 11.4 Constructing the Annulus and Quasi-Normals

  • 11.5 Constructing the Blade Camberline

  • 11.6 Constructing the Blade Surfaces

  • 11.7 The Blade Passage Throat Geometry

  • 11.8 An Effective Gaspath Design System

  • 11.9 Application to Impeller Design

 

12.0 Aerodynamic Design and Performance Analysis of Exhaust Diffusers

  • 12.1 Basic Diffuser Technology

  • 12.2 An Approximate Performance Analysis

  • 12.3 Sizing the Exhaust Diffuser

  • 12.4 A Detailed Aerodynamic Performance Analysis

 

13.0 Two-Dimensional Analysis of the Flow in the Blade-To-Blade Plane

  • 13.1 The Blade-to-Blade Flow Problem

  • 13.2 Coordinate System and Velocity Components

  • 13.3 The Potential Flow Solution Procedure

  • 13.4 A Linearized Potential Flow Procedure

  • 13.5 The Time-Marching Solution Procedure

  • 13.6 Blade Surface Boundary Layer Analysis

  • 13.7 Summary

 

14.0 Quasi-Three-Dimensional Blade Passage Flow Field Analysis

  • 14.1 Quasi-Three-Dimensional Flow

  • 14.2 The Quasi-Normal Coordinate System

  • 14.3 Numerical Integration of the Governing Equations

  • 14.4 Repositioning the Stream Surfaces

  • 14.5 The Hub-To-Shroud Flow Analysis

  • 14.6 Coupling the Two Basic Flow Analyses

  • 14.7 Boundary Layer Analysis

 

References

 

About the Author

 

Index